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Langsung saja :

# userdel -r named
# rm -rf /var/named

# wget ftp://ftp.isc.org/isc/bind9/9.2.2rc1/bind-9.2.2rc1.tar.gz
# tar -xzvf bind-9.2.2rc1.tar.gz
# cd bind-9.2.2rc1
# ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/named
# make
# make install
# adduser -d /var/named -s /bin/false named

# cd /var/named
# wget ftp://internic.net/domain/named.root
# vi db.127.0.0

isinya adalah :

$TTL 86400
@ IN SOA localhost. root.localhost. (
2003021500 ; serial
28800 ; refresh
14400 ; retry
3600000 ; expiry
86400 ) ; minimum

IN NS localhost.
1 IN PTR localhost.

# cp db.127.0.0 db.10.126.24
# vi db.localhost

isinya adalah :
$TTL 86400
$ORIGIN localhost.
@ IN SOA localhost. root.localhost. (
2003021500 ; serial
28800 ; refresh
14400 ; retry
3600000 ; expiry
86400 ) ; minimum

IN NS localhost.
IN A 127.0.0.1

# mkdir /usr/local/named/etc
# vi /usr/local/named/etc/named.conf

isinya adalah :

options {
directory “/var/named”;
allow-transfer { 10.126.24.2/32; };
pid-file “/var/named/named.pid”;
};

logging {
category lame-servers { null; };
};

zone “.” IN {
type hint;
file “named.root”;
};

zone “localhost” IN {
type master;
file “db.localhost”;
allow-update { none; };
};

zone “0.0.127.in-addr.arpa” IN {
type master;
file “db.127.0.0”;
allow-update { none; };
};

zone “24.126.10.in-addr.arpa” IN {
type master;
file “db.10.126.24”;
};

Kemudian meng-generate file konfigurasi yang akan digunakan oleh program rndc, ingat hasil dari perintah rndc-confgen bisa jadi berbeda dengan apa yang ditampilkan disini :

# /usr/local/named/sbin/rndc-confgen

Kemudian copy-paste dari hasil perintah tersebut diatas mulai dari baris “# Start of rndc.conf” sampai dengan baris “# End of rndc.conf”, simpan dengan nama file /usr/local/named/etc/rndc.conf . Kemudian copy-paste lagi dengan menghilangkan tanda “#”, mulai dari baris “# key “rndc-key”…” sampai dengan baris yang hampir paling bawah diatas baris “# End of named.conf ” yaitu sampai dengan baris “};” kemudian tambahkan pada file /usr/local/named/etc/named.conf . Sebagai contohnya adalah sebagai berikut ini, isi dari file /usr/local/named/etc/rndc.conf misalnya :

# Start of rndc.conf
key “rndc-key” {
algorithm hmac-md5;
secret “2LCJImnMimOwc1odWR6jfg==”;
};

options {
default-key “rndc-key”;
default-server 127.0.0.1;
default-port 953;
};
# End of rndc.conf

Sedangkan pada file /usr/local/named/etc/named.conf ditambahkan sebagai berikut :

key “rndc-key” {
algorithm hmac-md5;
secret “2LCJImnMimOwc1odWR6jfg==”;
};

controls {
inet 127.0.0.1 port 953
allow { 127.0.0.1; } keys { “rndc-key”; };
};

# /usr/local/named/sbin/rndc-confgen > confgen.tmp
# grep -v “^#” confgen.tmp > /usr/local/named/etc/rndc.conf
# grep “^#” confgen.tmp | sed 1,3d | sed -e “s/\# //g” | sed -e “s/End of named.conf//g” >> /usr/local/named/etc/named.conf
# rm -rf confgen.tmp

# chown -R named.named /var/named
# /usr/local/named/sbin/named -u named -c /usr/local/named/etc/named.conf

# echo “/usr/local/named/sbin/named -u named -c /usr/local/named/etc/named.conf” >> /etc/rc.local
# echo “nameserver 127.0.0.1” > /etc/resolv.conf

Testing query menggunakan name server localhost dengan perintah host :
# host 127.0.0.1
1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer localhost.
[root@wedus named]# host localhost
localhost has address 127.0.0.1

Atau dengan menggunakan perintah dig :

# dig -x 127.0.0.1
; <<>> DiG 9.2.2rc1 <<>> -x 127.0.0.1
;; global options: printcmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 64212
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa. IN PTR

;; ANSWER SECTION:
1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa. 86400 IN PTR localhost.

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa. 86400 IN NS localhost.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
localhost. 86400 IN A 127.0.0.1

;; Query time: 1 msec
;; SERVER: 127.0.0.1#53(127.0.0.1)
;; WHEN: Sat Feb 15 13:58:48 2003
;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 93

Demikian semoga dapat membantu rekan2 sekalian

kutipan : http://www.layangan.com/asfik/writings/dns-bind.html

Iklan

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Proxy network

Proxy network

Artikel bermanfaat kali ini akan membahas tentang Autentifikasi User dan Password di squid proxy server pada saat client melakukan browsing ke internet. Diasumsikan instalasi proxy squid di server anda sudah di tambahkan option sebagai berikut :

–enable-auth=”basic”
–enable-basic-auth-helpers=”NCSA”

NB:
Pada saat configure proxy squid arahkan direktory prefix squid anda ke /usr/local/squid

Baiklah kalo sudah selesai instalasi squid anda harus mengkonfigurasi squid tersebut supaya bisa berjalan sesuai dengan yang anda inginkan yaitu muncul dialog User dan Password saat client melakukan browsing ke Internet.

Langsung saja kita konfigurasi Squid yang sudah anda instalasi tersebut:

1. Buatlah file untuk user dan password saat client anda browsing di internet caranya sebagai berikut :

Router # cd /usr/local/squid
Router # touch passwd
Router # chmod o+r passwd

2. Create User dan Password untuk masing masing client

Router# htpasswd /usr/local/squid/passwd yudy —-> yudy (UserSquid)
New password:
Re-type new password:
Adding password for user yudy

3. Tambahkan baris tulisan berikut ke dalam squid.conf anda

auth_param basic program /usr/local/squid/libexec/ncsa_auth /usr/local/squid/passwd
auth_param basic children 5
auth_param basic realm Squid proxy-caching web server
auth_param basic credentialsttl 2 hours
auth_param basic casesensitive off

acl ncsa_users proxy_auth REQUIRED
http_access allow ncsa_users

Konfigurasi squid.conf

Konfigurasi squid.conf

4. Kemudian save Konfgurasi squid.conf anda

5. Configure atau Restart squid anda dengan cara

Router # /usr/local/squid/sbin/squid -k reconfigure

atau

Router # killall squid
Router # /usr/local/squid/sbin/squid -YD

6. Cek di mesin Router anda dengan perintah

Router # ps ax

status squid dan autentifikasi sudah akfit

status squid dan autentifikasi sudah akfit

7. Coba anda buat browsing  lewat komputer client dengan mengkonfigurasi browser Internet Explorer

Buka Internet Explore –> Tools –> Internet Options –> Connections –> Lan Setting

Internet Explorer Setting IP Proxy

Internet Explorer Setting IP Proxy

8. Maka pada saat browsing internet dialog untuk menanyakan User dan Password akan muncul seperti gambar dibawah ini.

dialog-autentifikasi

dialog-autentifikasi

Demikian Semoga Bermanfaat.

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Linux Slackware

Linux Slackware

linux debian

linux debian

Langsung saja untuk mengganti port SSH di linux ini adalah merupakan sebagian security pada server kita berikut konfigurasinya :

1. Login root ke server anda.
2. Cek port dengan mengetik :
# netstat -an
tcp      0       0        0.0.0.0:106 0.0.0.0:*        LISTEN
tcp      0       0        127.0.0.1:3306 0.0.0.0:*           LISTEN
tcp      0       0        0.0.0.0:110 0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN
tcp      0       0        127.0.0.1:783 0.0.0.0:*          LISTEN
tcp      0       0        0.0.0.0:111 0.0.0.0:*           LISTEN
tcp      0       0       0.0.0.0:113 0.0.0.0:*           LISTEN
tcp      0       0       127.0.0.1:53 0.0.0.0:*         LISTEN
tcp      0       0       0.0.0.0:21 0.0.0.0:*            LISTEN
tcp      0       0        127.0.0.1:953 0.0.0.0:*         LISTEN
tcp      0      0         0.0.0.0:25 0.0.0.0:*         LISTEN
tcp6   0       0                :::993 :::*          LISTEN
tcp6   0       0                :::143 :::*          LISTEN
tcp6   0       0                :::80 :::*        LISTEN
tcp6   0       0                :::22 :::*       LISTEN

106, 3306, 110, 783, 111, 113, 53, 21, 953, 25, 993, 143, 80, 22 itu merupakan port yang sudah dipakai di server anda.

3. server# cd /etc/ssh (enter)
server# vi sshd_config

# Package generated configuration file
# See the sshd(8) manpage for details

# What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for

#Port yang bisa anda ganti atau menambahkan port baru

Port 22 # anda bisa mengganti dengan port yang lain
Port 23456
# anda bisa menambahkan port yang lain

# Use these options to restrict which interfaces/protocols sshd will bind to
#ListenAddress ::
#ListenAddress 0.0.0.0
Protocol 2
# HostKeys for protocol version 2
HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
#Privilege Separation is turned on for security
UsePrivilegeSeparation yes

Save dengan menekan (Esc :wq!) —> maka konfigurasi anda akan di save.

4. restart sshd mesin server anda

server# /etc/init.d/ssh restart    (untuk debian)

server# /etc/rc.d/sshd restart   (untuk slacware)
Restart mesin anda untuk lebih amannya.
server# reboot

Semoga Dapat bermanfaat

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Load Balancing Koneksi

Mempunyai koneksi internet lebih dari satu saat ini sudah biasa, terlebih bagi pengusaha warnet, hal ini juga didukung dengan semakin mudah dan murahnya koneksi internet.

Untuk menggunakan kedua koneksi tersebut secara bersamaan kita bisa memanfaatkan fasilitas load balancing. Kita membutuhkan iproute2 untuk melakukan hal tersebut.

Untuk kasus yang saya hadapi adalah, dua koneksi kedua – duanya menggunakan telkom speedy, dialnya via modem, soalnya ditempat ini sering putus sehingga ipnya sering ilang jadi default gw juga ilang praktis load balancingnya jadi macet :((. Eth0 adalah jaringan LAN, eth1 dan eth2 interface untuk koneksi speedy.

Split Access
Yang pertama sekali dilakukan adalah mendefenisikan keluar masuknya akses dari jalur yang sama. Untuk itu kita butuhkan sedikit modifikasi di file /etc/iproute2/rt_tables
Tambahkan saja di bagian bawah dari file tersebut baris berikut ini :

10	speedy1
20	speedy2

Simpan dan keluar :D.

Berikut adalah beberapa variable yang digunakan untuk kepentingan load balancing script 😀

$T1 = speedy1
$IF1 = eth1
$IP1 = 192.168.1.253
$P1_NET = 192.168.1.0/24
$GW1 = 192.168.1.254

demikian juga untuk interface berikutnya :

$T2 = speedy2
$IF2 = eth2
$IP2 = 192.168.2.253
$P2_NET = 192.168.2.0/24
$GW2 = 192.168.2.254

$T1, $T2 adalah nama tabel yang telah didefenisikan di file rt_tables
$IF1, $IF2 adalah interface dari koneksi yang akan diload balancingkan
$IP1, IP2 ip dari interface $IF1 dan IF2 dalam hal ini 192.168.1.253 dan 192.168.2.253
$P1_NET, $P2_NET ip network dari kedua interface
$GW1, $GW2 gateway dari IP $IP1 dan $IP2 sesuaikan dengan keperluan, untuk kondisi yang saya gunakan adalah 192.168.1.254 dan 192.168.2.254

Selanjutnya adalah menambahkannya di routing table seperti ini :

ip route add $P1_NET dev $IF1 src $IP1 table $T1
ip route add default via $GW1 table $T1
ip route add $P2_NET dev $IF2 src $IP2 table $T2
ip route add default via $GW2 table $T2

Selanjutnya adalah mengeset main routing table :

ip route add $P1_NET dev $IF1 src $IP1
ip route add $P2_NET dev $IF2 src $IP2

Selanjutnya mengeset routing rules

ip rule add from $IP1 table $T1
ip rule add from $IP2 table $T2

Load Balancing
Tugas berikutnya adalah menentukan gateway, biasanya kita mengeset gateway hanya untuk satu buah ip / interface namun kali ini kita akan menggunakan dua ip (kalau cuma satu ngapain pake dua koneksi internet 😛 )
Perintahnya seperti ini :

ip route add default scope global nexthop via $GW1 dev $IF1 weight 1 \
nexthop via $GW2 dev $IF2 weight 1

Pengecekan
Setelah melakukan setting, selanjutnya adalah memastikan bahwa load balancing yang kita buat berfungsi. Cek gateway dengan perintah :

ip r l

Jika menampilkan hasil seperti dibawah ini, maka kemungkinan load balancing sudah berhasil di set.

default 
	nexthop via 192.168.10.254  dev eth1 weight 1
	nexthop via 192.168.20.254  dev eth2 weight 1

Untuk memastikannnya silahkan gunakan iptraf dan pilih general interface statistics, akses ke internet (sebaiknya dengan banyak window terbuka) dan lihat activity dari interface yang digunakan untuk keluar, jika berhasil, terdapat activity pada kedua interface tersebut.

Script lengkap loadbalancing :

#!/bin/sh

# Parameter
 - parameter

# Koneksi ke modem adsl via eth1
T1 = speedy1
IF1=eth1
IP1=192.168.10.253
GW1=192.168.10.254
P1_NET=192.168.10.0/24

# Koneksi ke modem adsl via eth2
T2 = speedy2
IF2=eth2
IP2=192.168.20.253
GW2=192.168.20.254
P2_NET=192.168.20.0/24

ip route add $P1_NET dev $IF1 src $IP1 table $T1
ip route add default via $GW1 table $T1
ip route add $P2_NET dev $IF2 src $IP2 table $T2
ip route add default via $GW2 table $T2

ip route add $P1_NET dev $IF1 src $IP1
ip route add $P2_NET dev $IF2 src $IP2

ip rule add from $IP1 table $T1
ip rule add from $IP2 table $T2

ip route add default scope global nexthop via $GW1 dev $IF1 weight 1 \
            nexthop via $GW2 dev $IF2 weight 1

#end of script :D

Terima Kasih.
http://makassar-slackers.org/Load+Balancing+Koneksi

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Update IIX Routing

Update Routing IP IIX

114.120.0.0/13
125.166.0.0/15
125.162.0.0/16
125.163.0.0/16
125.160.0.0/16
125.161.0.0/16
125.164.0.0/16
125.165.0.0/16
222.124.0.0/16
61.94.0.0/16
167.205.0.0/16
202.158.0.0/17
61.5.0.0/17
124.195.0.0/17
114.57.0.0/18
117.102.64.0/18
210.210.128.0/18
207.209.192.0/18
61.14.0.0/18
206.182.192.0/18
125.208.128.0/18
203.130.192.0/18
124.153.0.0/18
152.118.128.0/18
221.132.192.0/18
152.118.192.0/18
152.118.0.0/18
152.118.64.0/18
114.58.0.0/18
202.152.0.0/18
209.93.224.0/19
202.173.64.0/19
114.199.96.0/19
202.171.0.0/19
202.47.192.0/19
202.169.32.0/19
202.182.160.0/19
117.102.224.0/19
202.51.192.0/19
202.149.128.0/19
202.147.224.0/19
202.146.224.0/19
202.159.64.0/19
202.95.128.0/19
202.152.224.0/19
60.253.96.0/19
61.247.0.0/19
61.247.32.0/19
114.57.64.0/19
117.104.192.0/19
118.98.160.0/19
118.98.192.0/19
118.136.0.0/19
118.136.32.0/19
118.136.64.0/19
118.136.96.0/19
118.136.128.0/19
118.136.160.0/19
118.136.192.0/19
118.136.224.0/19
118.137.0.0/19
118.137.32.0/19
118.137.64.0/19
118.137.96.0/19
118.137.128.0/19
118.137.160.0/19
118.137.192.0/19
118.137.224.0/19
121.52.64.0/19
124.81.0.0/19
124.81.32.0/19
124.81.64.0/19
124.81.96.0/19
124.81.128.0/19
124.81.192.0/19
124.81.224.0/19
202.10.32.0/19
202.53.224.0/19
202.57.0.0/19
202.73.96.0/19
202.77.96.0/19
202.81.32.0/19
202.137.0.0/19
202.138.224.0/19
202.148.0.0/19
202.150.64.0/19
202.153.128.0/19
202.154.0.0/19
202.154.32.0/19
202.155.0.0/19
202.155.32.0/19
202.155.128.0/19
202.159.0.0/19
202.159.32.0/19
202.162.192.0/19
203.128.64.0/19
219.83.0.0/19
219.83.32.0/19
219.83.64.0/19
61.8.64.0/20
114.57.96.0/20
114.57.160.0/20
114.141.48.0/20
114.199.80.0/20
116.68.160.0/20
117.20.48.0/20
117.103.0.0/20
118.98.240.0/20
119.2.64.0/20
119.82.224.0/20
119.110.64.0/20
119.235.208.0/20
119.252.160.0/20
121.50.128.0/20
122.129.192.0/20
122.200.0.0/20
124.81.176.0/20
202.3.208.0/20
202.6.208.0/20
202.6.224.0/20
202.46.64.0/20
202.46.144.0/20
202.47.64.0/20
202.51.224.0/20
202.58.64.0/20
202.58.160.0/20
202.59.160.0/20
202.59.192.0/20
202.65.112.0/20
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202.69.96.0/20
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202.87.176.0/20
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202.133.80.0/20
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202.155.64.0/20
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202.165.32.0/20
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203.78.112.0/20
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210.57.208.0/20
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219.83.96.0/20
220.157.96.0/20
58.65.240.0/21
61.45.224.0/21
114.57.232.0/21
114.134.72.0/21
114.141.88.0/21
115.69.216.0/21
116.0.0.0/21
116.12.40.0/21
116.50.24.0/21
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116.90.208.0/21
116.197.128.0/21
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117.18.16.0/21
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119.2.40.0/21
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121.100.16.0/21
121.101.128.0/21
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122.49.224.0/21
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122.200.48.0/21
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124.66.160.0/21
124.81.168.0/21
124.158.128.0/21
202.43.160.0/21
202.43.176.0/21
202.43.248.0/21
202.46.24.0/21
202.46.80.0/21
202.51.16.0/21
202.58.176.0/21
202.62.16.0/21
202.67.8.0/21
202.72.192.0/21
202.74.72.0/21
202.87.248.0/21
202.89.208.0/21
202.91.8.0/21
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202.93.240.0/21
202.129.184.0/21
202.133.0.0/21
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202.153.224.0/21
202.155.80.0/21
202.155.104.0/21
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202.159.96.0/21
202.162.32.0/21
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202.169.240.0/21
202.179.184.0/21
202.180.0.0/21
202.180.48.0/21
203.77.224.0/21
203.80.8.0/21
203.84.136.0/21
203.84.152.0/21
203.123.240.0/21
203.134.232.0/21
203.135.176.0/21
203.142.80.0/21
203.153.24.0/21
203.153.112.0/21
203.174.8.0/21
203.176.176.0/21
203.190.48.0/21
203.190.112.0/21
203.190.184.0/21
203.190.240.0/21
203.191.40.0/21
210.23.64.0/21
219.83.112.0/21
220.247.168.0/21
222.229.80.0/21
58.145.168.0/22
61.45.232.0/22
114.30.80.0/22
114.31.240.0/22
116.66.200.0/22
116.90.176.0/22
116.199.204.0/22
117.102.160.0/22
117.103.56.0/22
118.98.228.0/22
118.98.236.0/22
119.2.48.0/22
119.18.156.0/22
119.235.16.0/22
120.29.224.0/22
120.136.16.0/22
122.102.48.0/22
124.6.32.0/22
124.81.164.0/22
146.23.252.0/22
202.2.92.0/22
202.43.184.0/22
202.46.0.0/22
202.46.88.0/22
202.51.28.0/22
202.51.252.0/22
202.55.164.0/22
202.55.168.0/22
202.62.8.0/22
202.62.24.0/22
202.72.200.0/22
202.75.16.0/22
202.75.24.0/22
202.78.196.0/22
202.81.4.0/22
202.87.240.0/22
202.93.112.0/22
202.122.8.0/22
202.146.0.0/22
202.146.128.0/22
202.146.176.0/22
202.149.72.0/22
202.149.88.0/22
202.153.236.0/22
202.155.92.0/22
202.155.96.0/22
202.158.132.0/22
202.159.108.0/22
202.162.40.0/22
202.173.16.0/22
202.180.16.0/22
203.77.208.0/22
203.77.236.0/22
203.77.248.0/22
203.81.184.0/22
203.99.96.0/22
203.123.248.0/22
203.128.248.0/22
203.142.68.0/22
203.142.76.0/22
203.160.56.0/22
203.190.40.0/22
210.23.72.0/22
219.83.120.0/22
222.165.192.0/22
222.165.252.0/22
32.234.170.0/23
32.234.172.0/23
61.45.236.0/23
116.66.204.0/23
116.90.166.0/23
116.199.202.0/23
116.212.100.0/23
117.102.166.0/23
117.103.60.0/23
118.82.0.0/23
118.82.12.0/23
119.235.20.0/23
121.52.58.0/23
121.52.134.0/23
123.176.120.0/23
124.158.136.0/23
194.146.106.0/23
202.20.106.0/23
202.43.168.0/23
202.43.188.0/23
202.46.4.0/23
202.46.14.0/23
202.46.92.0/23
202.46.130.0/23
202.46.240.0/23
202.46.252.0/23
202.51.56.0/23
202.51.98.0/23
202.51.106.0/23
202.55.160.0/23
202.55.172.0/23
202.58.196.0/23
202.62.28.0/23
202.65.236.0/23
202.75.20.0/23
202.78.192.0/23
202.78.200.0/23
202.78.204.0/23
202.89.216.0/23
202.89.222.0/23
202.90.194.0/23
202.93.116.0/23
202.122.12.0/23
202.135.6.0/23
202.135.134.0/23
202.146.4.0/23
202.146.132.0/23
202.149.78.0/23
202.149.92.0/23
202.150.136.0/23
202.153.232.0/23
202.154.176.0/23
202.154.184.0/23
202.155.100.0/23
202.158.130.0/23
202.159.106.0/23
202.162.46.0/23
202.169.232.0/23
202.169.236.0/23
202.173.20.0/23
202.180.8.0/23
202.191.2.0/23
203.31.164.0/23
203.77.214.0/23
203.77.220.0/23
203.77.232.0/23
203.77.246.0/23
203.81.190.0/23
203.99.102.0/23
203.123.252.0/23
203.142.64.0/23
203.153.120.0/23
203.160.60.0/23
203.189.88.0/23
203.190.36.0/23
203.190.46.0/23
203.194.70.0/23
203.223.90.0/23
204.61.216.0/23
206.73.208.0/23
206.73.234.0/23
206.73.238.0/23
210.23.76.0/23
219.83.124.0/23
32.234.169.0/24
32.234.175.0/24
58.145.173.0/24
58.145.175.0/24
58.147.189.0/24
61.45.238.0/24
114.4.0.0/24
114.4.5.0/24
116.58.197.0/24
116.66.207.0/24
116.90.163.0/24
116.90.164.0/24
116.212.96.0/24
117.102.164.0/24
118.82.14.0/24
118.82.18.0/24
118.82.31.0/24
119.2.55.0/24
119.47.88.0/24
119.252.129.0/24
119.252.132.0/24
119.252.135.0/24
120.136.23.0/24
121.52.25.0/24
121.52.29.0/24
121.52.35.0/24
121.52.42.0/24
121.52.61.0/24
121.52.129.0/24
121.52.130.0/24
122.102.52.0/24
122.201.39.0/24
123.176.122.0/24
123.176.127.0/24
124.81.160.0/24
124.81.162.0/24
124.158.138.0/24
144.5.46.0/24
152.158.247.0/24
192.5.5.0/24
192.23.186.0/24
192.36.148.0/24
192.92.81.0/24
194.0.1.0/24
194.0.2.0/24
194.146.108.0/24
202.14.255.0/24
202.22.31.0/24
202.43.170.0/24
202.43.173.0/24
202.43.175.0/24
202.43.190.0/24
202.46.9.0/24
202.46.11.0/24
202.46.94.0/24
202.46.129.0/24
202.51.96.0/24
202.51.100.0/24
202.51.104.0/24
202.51.109.0/24
202.51.110.0/24
202.51.122.0/24
202.58.203.0/24
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202.62.31.0/24
202.65.227.0/24
202.65.228.0/24
202.65.238.0/24
202.75.22.0/24
202.75.29.0/24
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202.78.195.0/24
202.78.203.0/24
202.78.207.0/24
202.87.245.0/24
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202.92.192.0/24
202.92.207.0/24
202.122.15.0/24
202.122.162.0/24
202.122.165.0/24
202.122.166.0/24
202.135.5.0/24
202.135.16.0/24
202.135.23.0/24
202.135.28.0/24
202.135.42.0/24
202.135.54.0/24
202.135.129.0/24
202.135.133.0/24
202.135.145.0/24
202.135.155.0/24
202.135.161.0/24
202.135.248.0/24
202.146.32.0/24
202.146.34.0/24
202.146.47.0/24
202.146.135.0/24
202.146.180.0/24
202.149.77.0/24
202.151.9.0/24
202.154.183.0/24
202.154.187.0/24
202.154.190.0/24
202.155.88.0/24
202.155.91.0/24
202.155.102.0/24
202.158.129.0/24
202.160.254.0/24
202.162.44.0/24
202.167.97.0/24
202.169.234.0/24
202.180.10.0/24
202.180.20.0/24
203.14.176.0/24
203.77.212.0/24
203.77.216.0/24
203.77.223.0/24
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203.77.255.0/24
203.99.100.0/24
203.99.119.0/24
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203.99.127.0/24
203.119.13.0/24
203.119.17.0/24
203.123.254.0/24
203.142.66.0/24
203.153.122.0/24
203.160.62.0/24
203.163.66.0/24
203.163.76.0/24
203.163.81.0/24
203.163.88.0/24
203.163.95.0/24
203.163.113.0/24
203.173.89.0/24
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203.174.5.0/24
203.194.90.0/24
203.196.90.0/24
205.248.57.0/24
205.248.151.0/24
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206.73.79.0/24
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222.165.251.0/24

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IIX ROUTING

IIX Routing 

route add -net 32.234.170.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 32.234.174.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.5.0.0 netmask 255.255.128.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.5.0.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.5.16.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.5.20.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.5.28.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.5.36.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.5.192.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.14.0.0 netmask 255.255.192.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.14.41.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.14.43.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.14.61.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.94.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.94.32.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.94.40.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.94.48.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.94.63.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.94.80.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.94.88.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 61.94.126.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 64.110.176.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 64.110.180.96 netmask 255.255.255.240 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 81.52.246.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 141.103.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 141.103.0.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 141.103.8.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 148.188.240.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 152.158.240.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 152.158.247.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 156.146.3.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 167.205.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 192.92.81.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 193.47.8.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 198.32.202.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 198.137.100.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 198.182.49.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.3.208.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.6.208.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.6.213.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.6.224.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.6.233.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.6.236.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.6.239.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.10.32.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.10.48.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.10.60.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.12.20.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.43.160.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.43.162.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.43.168.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.43.248.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.43.251.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.43.255.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.1.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.2.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.8.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.11.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.14.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.24.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.29.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.64.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.130.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.144.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.240.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.243.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.244.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.245.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.46.252.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.47.64.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.47.64.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.47.70.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.47.77.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.47.192.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.96.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.112.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.192.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.197.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.200.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.204.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.208.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.210.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.228.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.232.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.51.252.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.53.224.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.53.224.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.53.248.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.55.168.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.55.172.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.57.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.57.1.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.57.4.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.57.16.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.58.64.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.58.200.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.58.201.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.59.160.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.59.160.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.59.163.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.59.168.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.59.196.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.59.200.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.59.204.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.59.206.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.65.112.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.65.118.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.65.226.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.65.238.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.67.32.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.69.96.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.70.48.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.72.192.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.72.192.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.72.206.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.73.100.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.73.112.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.73.224.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.73.232.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.75.16.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.75.96.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.75.98.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.75.102.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.75.110.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.77.64.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.77.65.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.77.75.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.77.78.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.77.96.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.77.108.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.78.192.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.78.195.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.78.196.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.80.112.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.81.58.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.81.60.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.87.176.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.92.192.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.93.32.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.93.112.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.128.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.129.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.131.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.133.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.135.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.137.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.139.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.141.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.145.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.95.155.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.123.224.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.123.228.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.123.232.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.127.96.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.127.103.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.127.106.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.134.0.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.134.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.5.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.23.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.28.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.42.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.54.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.111.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.129.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.133.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.145.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.155.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.161.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.226.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.248.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.135.255.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.136.64.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.137.0.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.137.12.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.137.28.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.138.224.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.138.232.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.138.236.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.138.252.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.143.32.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.143.56.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.143.96.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.145.0.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.145.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.145.1.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.146.32.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.146.34.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.146.128.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.146.224.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.147.192.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.147.224.0 netmask 255.255.192.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.147.224.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.147.248.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.147.252.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.148.10.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.148.11.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.148.13.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.148.63.200 netmask 255.255.255.255 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.149.68.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.149.80.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.149.85.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.149.128.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.149.128.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.149.148.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.149.152.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.1.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.3.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.6.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.32.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.34.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.36.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.38.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.64.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.128.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.129.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.131.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.133.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.224.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.228.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.240.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.150.244.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.151.32.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.0.0 netmask 255.255.192.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.0.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.4.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.11.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.20.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.32.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.160.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.161.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.224.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.224.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.250.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.152.254.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.153.128.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.153.129.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.153.132.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.153.144.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.153.224.0 netmask 255.255.192.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.153.224.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.153.232.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.153.248.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.12.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.18.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.24.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.28.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.32.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.42.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.48.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.53.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.56.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.58.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.60.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.154.190.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.0.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.12.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.26.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.34.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.40.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.52.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.54.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.60.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.62.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.70.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.74.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.76.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.80.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.89.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.94.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.100.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.112.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.114.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.120.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.124.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.128.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.128.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.130.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.133.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.137.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.144.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.155.158.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.0.0 netmask 255.255.128.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.0.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.32.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.52.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.64.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.73.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.85.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.96.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.120.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.158.143.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.0.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.8.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.10.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.24.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.32.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.40.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.44.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.48.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.56.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.60.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.80.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.88.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.159.112.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.160.254.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.162.32.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.162.192.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.162.195.4 netmask 255.255.255.255 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.162.208.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.162.221.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.165.32.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.165.35.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.165.44.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.167.97.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.169.32.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.169.33.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.169.44.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.169.47.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.169.55.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.169.224.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.169.224.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.169.232.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.170.228.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.171.0.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.173.64.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.173.91.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.173.94.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.180.0.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.180.16.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 202.183.0.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.77.208.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.77.209.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.77.224.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.77.225.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.77.227.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.77.230.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.77.236.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.77.255.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.83.32.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.83.34.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.99.97.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.99.102.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.99.109.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.99.112.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.99.119.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.99.127.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.123.224.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.128.64.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.128.76.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.192.0 netmask 255.255.192.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.192.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.194.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.197.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.204.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.210.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.214.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.215.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.222.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.224.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.228.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.232.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.235.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.237.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.239.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.242.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.253.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.130.255.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.163.66.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.163.76.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.163.81.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.163.88.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.163.113.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 203.194.70.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 204.79.89.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 205.248.57.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 205.248.151.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 205.248.158.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.80.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.194.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.203.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.205.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.209.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.222.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.227.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.234.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.238.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.244.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.73.248.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.36.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.192.0 netmask 255.255.192.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.193.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.202.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.211.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.214.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.217.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.231.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.243.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 206.182.245.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 207.83.112.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 207.117.234.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 207.209.192.0 netmask 255.255.192.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 208.35.66.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 208.35.198.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 209.93.224.0 netmask 255.255.224.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 209.93.235.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 209.93.237.0 netmask 255.255.254.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 209.93.254.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 210.23.64.0 netmask 255.255.248.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 210.23.69.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 216.252.165.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.1 netmask 255.255.255.252 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.4 netmask 255.255.255.248 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.12 netmask 255.255.255.248 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.32 netmask 255.255.255.224 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.64 netmask 255.255.255.192 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.128 netmask 255.255.255.128 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.208 netmask 255.255.255.248 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.214 netmask 255.255.255.255 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.228 netmask 255.255.255.248 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.240 netmask 255.255.255.248 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0
route add -net 218.100.4.246 netmask 255.255.255.255 gw 192.168.168.1 dev eth0

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PERINTAH LINUX

PERINTAH – PERINTAH YANG SERING DIGUNAKAN DI-LINUX.

linux

cd X atau cd /X –> masuk ke direktori X
cd .. atau cd ../ atau cd/.. –> pindah ke direktori satu level di bawah
X lalu [tab] [tab] –> berguna untuk mengetahui perintah apa saja yang tersedia yang berawalan huruf X
adduser –> untuk menambahkan user baru
ls atau dir –> untuk melihat isi suatu direktori
cat –> untuk melihat isi dari suatu file text
mv X Y –> untuk memindahkan atau merename file X ke file Y
cp X Y –> untuk mengkopi file X ke file Y
rm X –> untuk menghapus file X
mkdir X –> untuk membuat direktori X
rmdir X –> untuk menghapus direktori X
rm -r X –> untuk menghapus direktori x beserta seluruh isinya
rm p –> untuk menghapus paket tertentu
df atau df X –> untuk mengetahui space kosong dalam device X
top –> untuk mengetahui status memori (tekan q untuk quit)
man X –> untuk mengetahui keterangan manual dari suatu perintah
less X –> untuk melihat isi dari suatu file text
echo X –> untuk mencetak isi dari suatu file X ke screen
mc –> untuk menghidupkan Norton Commander dalam Linux

mount –> untuk menghidupkan suatu device spt cdrom
halt –> untuk shutdown
reboot atau ctrl + alt + del –> untuk reboot

chmod –> untuk mengubah permission suatu file
ls -l X –> untuk melihat isi suatu direktori secara rinci
ln -s X Y –> untuk membuat link dari suatu file X ke file Y
find X -name Y -print –> untuk menemukan file Y, dengan mencari mulai dari direktori X dan tampilkan hasilnya pada layar
ps –> untuk melihat seluruh proses yang sedang berjalan
kill X –> untuk mematikan proses X (X adalah PID di dalam ps)
alt + F1 – F7 –> untuk berpindah dari terminal 1 – 7 (ciri khas Linux)
lilo –> untuk membuat boot disk
startx –> untuk menjalankan X-Windows
ctrl + alt + backspace –> untuk keluar dari X-Windows jika terjadi trouble
ctrl + alt + F1 – F6 –> untuk pindah dari satu terminal ke terminal lain dalam X-Windows
xf86Config –> untuk mengeset X (primitif) dalam text mode
Xconfigurator –> sama seperti di atas
install program –>./configure && make && make install
install program –> make install
shutdown –h now –> mengakhiri linux
halt –> mengakhiri linux
shutdown –r now –> me-reboot linux
reboot –> me-reboot linux
startx –> menjalankan X windows server

MANIPULASI FILE DAN DIREKTORI
ls –l –> menampilkan semua file dalam direktori dengan format panjang
ls –f –> menampilkan semua file dan jenisnya dalam direktori dengan format panjang
ls –laC –> menampilkan semua file dalam direktori dengan format panjang dan tampilan kolom
rm myfile –> menghapus file myfile
rm –rf mydir –> menghapus direktori mydir dan semua file didalamnya
mv setan /home/tole –> memindahkan file setan ke dalam direktori tole
cat myfile –> menampilkan isi file myfile
more myfile –> menampilkan isi file myfile
less myfile –> menampilkan isi file myfile
head myfile –> menampilkan 10 baris pertama isi file myfile
head -20myfile –> menampilkan 20 baris pertama file myfile
tail myfile –> menampilkan 10 baris terakhir file myfile
tail -20 myfile –> menampilkan 20 baris terakhir file myfile
man more –> menampilkan manual dan perintah more

MOUNTING dan MENGAKSES FILE SYSTEM
mount –t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom –> me-mount dalam format iso9660 dan meletakkannya di /mnt/cdrom
mount –t msdos /dev/hdd /mnt/ddrive –> me-mount hardisk hdd dalam format msdos dan meletakkannya di /mnt/ddrive
umount /mnt/cdrom –> mengahiri mounting pada cdrom

MENCARI FILE dan TEKS DALAM FILE
find / -name gareng–> mencari file bernama gareng, dimulai dari direktori root
find / -name “*setan*” –> mencari file yang berisi setan, dimulai dari direktori root
which setan–> menampilkan letak dari file excutable bernama setan
whereis setan –> menampilkan letak daru file excutable bernama setan
grep kancil /binatang –> mencari semua file yang berisi string kancil, dimulai dari direktori /binatang

INSTALASI APLIKASI SOFTWARE
rpm –ihv tikus.rpm –> menginstall paket software rpm bernama tikus
rpm –Uhv tikus.rpm –> mengupdate paket software rpm bernama tikus
rpm –e sapi.rpm –> menghapus paket software rpm bernama sapi
rpm –l sapi.rpm –> menampilkan semua file dalam paket software rpm bernama sapi
rpm –ql sapi.rpm –> menampilkan semua file dan versi installer dalam paket software rpm bernama sapi
rpm –I –force kuda.rpm –> mengisntall kembali file kuda
tar –zxvf wedus.tar.gz –> mengextrak file yang di kompres dengan gzip dan tar bernama wedus
./configure –>
menjalankan script untuk memulai mengkompile file yang akan diinstall

ADMINISTRASI X WINDOWS
xvidtune –> menjalakan utility untuk tunning X graphics
XF86Setup –> menjalankan X menu configurator
Xconfigurator –> menjalankan X configurator dengan probing card otomatis
xf86config –> menjalankan X menu configurator dengan basis teks

ADMINISTRASI USER
adduser abe –> membuat user barubernama abc
password abe –> membuat password untuk user abe
su –> login sebagai superuser dari user biasa
exit –> keluar dari superuser dan kembali ke user biasa

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